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Second Law strongly advocates user education program in libraries. Obligations of the Reader - The Second Law expects the readers also to discharge some responsibilities. Readers should be disciplined and follow rules and regulations. Readers should restrain from cutting pages from books, keeping books beyond the due date, etc. All such acts amount to keeping other readers away from their books.

CD: The Five Laws of the Kingdom

The emphasis is on the book. This law desires that every book in a library must find its reader. It implies that there should be maximum use of books by their users. This principle is closely related to the second law, but it focuses on the item itself, suggesting that each item in a library has an individual or individuals who would find that item useful.

Ranganathan argued that the library could devise many methods to ensure that each item finds its appropriate reader. One method involved the basic rules for access to the collection, most notably the need for open shelving. The third law of library science "every book its reader" means a library's books have a place in the library even if a smaller demographic might choose to read it.

It is, therefore, necessary to adopt measures to ensure successful implementation of the demand of the Third Law. The factors that may be kept in view in this regard have been discussed below:. Open Access - It is one of the most effective ways to ensure that the maximum number of books are seen by the readers. It also happens sometimes that the reader to the shelves in search of a book and in the process of search select many more books.

Book Selection - Give full weightage to the tastes and requirements of the clientele of the library. Difficulties of the Third Law can be minimized by adopting a well-balanced book selection policy. If the right books are selected it will definitely find its readers Shelf Arrangement - If the books are arranged so that the subjects get arranged according to the degree of mutual relationship, then each book would have a higher probability of getting its readers.

Easy Accessibility - Books should be placed within easy reach of the readers.

It has been observed that the books within the comfortable reach of the readers are most frequently used. For easy accessibility, shelves should not be higher than 6. Cataloging - Proper cataloging of books is very important as even though there may be well planned and arranged books on the shelves but they are incapable merely by itself.

Series entry and cross-reference entries are highly useful in drawing the attention of the readers. Analytical entries increase the chance of a composite book getting its reader. Reference Service - A reference librarian should know about the world of books and try to find out a reader for every one of these. The reference librarian should act as a canvassing agent for each book. Publicity - Publicity is a very powerful weapon to attract readers to the library and thereby to increase the chances of every book to find its reader.

For example, the arrival of new books may be brought to the notice of the readers by displaying them, near the entrance of the library, or by communicating the readers through an e-newsletter or broadcasting information about them through the Twitter handle of the library. Extension Service - The library attract readers by converting itself into a cultural and social center. A library does this by organizing exhibitions, musical concerts, a magic show, celebration of local and national festivals, etc.

Once the people come to these functions, then the library can make an attempt to bring books and readers together. This law is a recognition that part of the excellence of library service is its ability to meet the needs of the library user efficiently. To this end, Dr.

Ranganathan recommended the use of appropriate business methods to improve library management.

He observed that centralizing the library collection in one location provided distinct advantages. He also noted that excellent staff would not only include those who possess strong reference skills, but also strong technical skills in cataloging, cross-referencing, ordering, accessioning, and the circulation of materials. The fourth law of library science "save the time of the user" means that all patrons should be able to easily locate the material they desire quickly and efficiently.

Open Access - In a closed access of books time is wasted unnecessarily. In open access, the time of the readers is saved.

common law | Definition, Origins, Development, & Examples |

If open access is not there then the reader has to make the choice of the books through the searching of the library catalog. Then the reader requests the library staff the book which he has searched in the catalog. The staff searches the required book and if the staff is not able to trace the book, then the reader again needs to search the catalog. These problems can be avoided if open access is provided where the readers can themselves go to the shelves to search their book.

Location - The location of the library is of great importance. It must be centrally located so that it is conveniently accessible to the community served.

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For an institutional library, it should be in the center of the institution, for a public library it should be in the center of the city. Centrally located library saves the times of the users in visiting it. Shelf Arrangement, Classification, and Cataloging - Proper classification schemes should be used in the library. Books should be arranged on shelves according to the classification number. Regular shelf rectification is also essential. In order to save the time of the readers, the library catalog should aim to provide different approaches to the users.

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It should include analytical entries for composite books. Stack-Room Guides - To save the time of the reader, the library should provide an efficient system of stack room guides. It may be quite useful to keep it at the entrance of the stack room, the whole plan of the room indicating the position of the book racks and classes of books in them.

Issue and Return - Most readers want to read the book at home.

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For this, the library has to issue the books to the readers. The U.

Supreme Court building features Hammurabi on the marble carvings of historic lawgivers that lines the south wall of the courtroom. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. Black codes were restrictive laws designed to limit the freedom of African Americans and ensure their availability as a cheap labor force after slavery was abolished during the Civil War. Though the Union victory had given some 4 million slaves their freedom, the question of Developed in the s and s by Samuel Morse and other inventors, the telegraph revolutionized long-distance communication.

It worked by transmitting electrical signals over a wire laid between stations. In addition to helping invent the telegraph, Samuel Morse The Code of Hammurabi is often cited as the oldest written laws on record, but they were predated by at least two other ancient codes of conduct from the Middle East.

The earliest, created by the Sumerian ruler Ur-Nammu of the city of In around B. Most of all, Pericles paid artisans to build temples The Athenian philosopher Plato c. In his written dialogues he conveyed and expanded on the ideas and techniques of his teacher Socrates. The Academy he Currently there are sixty Senate seats.

Five Laws of Library Science

A Senator must be at least forty years of age, and must be one of the following: present or former Prime Minister or Minister; former Ambassador, Minister Plenipotentiary, Speaker of the Chamber of Deputies, President or Judge of the Court of Cassation or of the Civil and Sharia Courts of Appeal; retired military officer of at least the rank of Lieutenant General; former Deputy who was elected at least twice in such a role; or other similar role that inspired the confidence of the people in view of their services to the country.

Senators are appointed by the King for four-year terms and may be reappointed. The Speaker of the Senate serves a term of two years, but may be reappointed. The Senate meets simultaneously with the Chamber of Deputies, and if the Chamber of Deputies is dissolved, the Senate sessions must be suspended. Members of the Chamber of Deputies are elected according to the provisions in the Law of Election to the House of Deputies infra. The Chamber currently consists of seats, 27 of which are reserved using a closed national list system to assure proportional representation.

There are also fifteen seats reserved for women, nine seats reserved for Christians, nine seats for Bedouins, and three for Jordanians of Chechen or Circassian descent. A Deputy must be at least thirty years of age.

The Love and Laws of God - Russell M. Nelson

The King may prolong the term of the Chamber for one to two years. If the election has not taken place by the end of the term of the Chamber or if the election is delayed, the Chamber will remain in office until a new Chamber is elected. The Chamber elects its Speaker for a one-year term, though the Speaker may be re-elected.